How Long Does Pet CBD Last?

 

From changing the method you use to train your pet to adding a new CBD supplement to their regimen, making changes to your pet’s routine often takes a lot of research, consultation, and worry on your part.

At Canna Companion, we hope to make that easier on you with our extensive resources, like our Cannabis Science, FAQ, and Blog sections, and access to our licensed veterinary professionals with a free one-on-one consultation.

Once you’ve decided to make CBD a regular part of your pet’s routine, it’s important to keep track of how much CBD you are administering and how long it lasts. Identifying your pet’s unique needs in this way will help you offer maximal support to your four-legged friend.

  • Information about tolerance to CBD and link out to CC blogs that talk about determining the amount / when to increase the amount given.

How long does it take for CBD to take effect?

The reasons you choose to give cannabis or CBD to your pet are expansive. For instance, Canna Companion’s line of custom-formulated CBD pet supplements provides a number of benefits, including:

  • Supports digestive processes and encourages optimal GI function
  • Helps support the immune system
  • Assists with joint discomfort associated with normal daily exercise and activity
  • Promotes general joint health
  • Maintains healthy neurological function
  • Supports cellular health for comfort and care
  • Encourages a normal, calm demeanor including in cases of temporary and/or situational anxieties
  • Maintains normal inflammatory response

These reasons will correspond not only with the type of supplement that is best suited for your pet, but also how you can observe the effect taking place. For example, if you are giving your pet CBD as a joint support, you may observe easier mobility and activity while your pet is taking the supplement. Additionally, you may notice periods of stiffness or less activity if/when the effects start to wear off.

You can typically expect CBD supplements to begin working within 30-60 minutes of administration. However, this will vary depending on your pet’s biological factors, as well as what type of CBD you are giving.

How long does pet CBD last?

Just as CBD products have a certain lasting effect in humans, eventually, the supportive effects of CBD in your pet will wear off too. There are several different factors that impact how long the effects of CBD will last for your pet, including factors as basic as the species, breed, age, height, and weight of your pet.

For instance, older patients experiencing a normal reduction in GI absorption may see an alteration in the response and duration of the supplement’s effect.

Absorption

One of the major factors impacting the duration of action of CBD supplements’ effects is absorption. While dogs are naturally able to digest plant matter, cats are obligate carnivores. This means that they depend only on meat for survival, and, therefore, their bodies cannot digest plants properly.

For plant compounds to enter the circulation in cats, they have to be altered in some way. In the wild, this occurs by the ingestion of partially digested plant matter found within the intestines of their prey.

However, in the supplement world, those compounds must meet several factors: small size, administration with other compounds that enhance absorption of plant matter, and proper chemical formulation for absorption in a carnivorous GI tract.

Age and GI tract health also appear to have a role in the absorption of CBD in cats and dogs, though the exact impact is not clear due to the lack of double-blind or peer-reviewed studies published on the matter. Based on typical responses of older GI tracts in dogs and cats – how they absorb medications, nutrients and supplements – as well as observational data over the last two decades, it is likely CBD products are also impacted by normal age-related GI tract changes.

Metabolism

Another major factor of how long CBD lasts in pets is metabolism. Let’s take a look at an overview of the metabolic process in pets:

1. Mouth

The very first step in the digestive process is the prehension of food -the act of putting food into the mouth. This is quickly followed by mastication, or chewing the food. In the case of cats, repositioning the food in preparation for swallowing. (Fun fact: Cats don’t actually chew their food, though they do gnaw on bones, while dogs may chew or swallow in chunks). Whether you are administering a meal or a CBD supplement, this is where the process begins.

2. Esophagus

Food and water will pass from the mouth to the stomach via the esophagus. It is important to keep a close eye for any problems that occur in this part of the digestive process, such as indigestion or difficulty swallowing. These problems tend to require a veterinarian’s immediate treatment.

3. Stomach

Next, food is stored in your pet’s stomach, both fully and partially digested. Just as in humans, this is where your pet’s body will produce acids and digestive enzymes that will help break down whatever it has ingested.

We often see that aging pets have a better time digesting food with the support of supplements or additives; this is a result of the normal aging process.

4. Intestines

Your pet’s intestines are a collection of organs where food is further broken down and digested into absorbable nutrients that then go on to circulate via the liver to the rest of the body. The pancreas and gallbladder excrete enzymes that assist in this process. We find that a large portion of CBD is left untouched in this stage, but this is not a bad thing. The cannabis receptor system can only handle so many compounds at once.

5. Colon

The colon is where food, water, and solid waste exit the body. While cleaning up after your four-legged friend may seem like an unsightly chore, inspecting their stool can be a clear giveaway to whether or not they currently have a healthy digestive cycle.

The storage of waste can allow cannabis compounds that were not absorbed to attach to local receptors within the colonic lumen. This process only occurs when such receptors indicate they need compounds, such as when the nearby colon cells are sending out stress chemicals.

Similar to absorption, your pet’s basic biological traits affect the way their digestive system works. For instance, according to PetMD, a dog’s digestive system typically takes anywhere from eight to ten hours to digest a meal fully, but can take as long as twelve or as quick as four depending on your dog’s breed and the type of food consumed.

On the other hand, cats have smaller bodies and therefore take longer to digest foods than other pets. Your feline will take anywhere between seven and twelve hours to fully digest a meal.

  • Breakdown of the normal processes in pets; normal metabolism (compliancy), ECM process of breaking things down

Food Ingestion

Another consideration is whether or not the CBD supplement you are giving your pet is being given with food. Food ingestion will slow the process of absorption and thus increase the duration of effect of CBD in your pet.

More notably, the presence of food provides two other important benefits. Food often increases the absorption of these compounds, particularly for carnivorous species, and it provides a layer of protection in sensitive patients, therefore reducing the risk for GI upset.

Pet’s Support Needs

Yet another factor is how much support your pet needs or how many areas are being addressed with CBD supplements.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) listens to stress chemicals and shuttles compounds where they are needed most. If there happens to be two areas of stress (e.g. aging pet with joint stiffness & noise phobia), and one provides appropriate numbers and types of compounds, then the ECS can better address those stresses.

As you can see, along with key biological factors, absorption, metabolism, food ingestion, and the support needs of your pet greatly impact how long CBD could last in your pet. But, it doesn’t stop there; it also matters what type of supplement you are giving your companion.

Which CBD pet supplements are best for your pet?

When it comes to CBD pet supplements, there are a variety of forms, with the two most common being whole plant or full spectrum capsules and oils.

Based on Canna Companion’s observational research spanning 20 years and thousands of patients, here is what we can say about how long pet CBD lasts based on what form you administer:

Oils are easier to break down than solid formulations, such as the powders in capsules. They, therefore, generally work faster and have a shorter duration of action. If given orally such that the stomach and intestines can digest and absorb the compounds, most oils start working in 30-45 min and last 4-6 hours.

On the other hand, if given by mouth for oral absorption (e.g. under the tongue, in the cheek pouch, or a small volume on the tongue), then the effects are often observed within five minutes, but only last 1-2 hours.

Capsules are more complex; compounds do not generally hit systemic circulation for 60-90 minutes. However, they last 8-10 hours in dogs and ~16 hours in cats.

As you can see, there are a multitude of factors that impact how long CBD supplements last in your pet. At Canna Companion, we understand that any good pet parent would want to get the full picture for their specific pet before making changes to their routine.

That’s why our licensed veterinarians take all of this into consideration in the formulation of our pet CBD products as well as in our one-on-one consultations. In fact, our intake form gives us an extensive picture of your pet’s health so that we can make recommendations completely custom to your pet.

It is our priority to create a plan that works for your four-legged friend, from personal preferences to individual medical history and more. To schedule a complimentary one-on-one consultation for your pet, book an appointment today.

What is the Difference between Pet CBD and Human CBD?

The CBD industry is, without question, booming. Although there may not be federal organizations publishing official studies, there is still significantly more research available about CBD – for humans, that is. And two things are very clear from existing human consumers: it works and people love it.

So why can’t we just use those popular, human CBD brands for our pets? What is the difference? We’re diving into these questions and more to show you why it’s so important to select your pet supplements carefully.

 

What is the difference between pet CBD and human CBD?

We’ll be upfront with you. The answer is that there really isn’t a difference.

However, sharing your CBD with your four-legged friends is not necessarily a good idea. In fact, it can be dangerous to your pet and cause unintended harm.

Most of the time, it has nothing to do with the actual CBD formulation itself. Many brands will add certain elements to their products to make it easier for consumption. 

Think of vitamin supplements you might find at a CVS or grocery store. They are often flavored with fruits to make taking your vitamins a lot more pleasant. In the same way, human CBD supplements often have added flavors like peppermint or chocolate to make it a fun experience. As you can imagine, most pets may not be fond of these flavors. 

More notably, CBD brands create concentrations that are easily administered to their target consumer. For instance, a human CBD oil might make one serving a dropper-full of oil. However, what is calculated to be one serving for a human will not be the same for your pet. 

The quantity and concentration of product varies between pet CBD and human CBD, meaning that you could potentially put your companion at risk by sharing your CBD products with them.

 

What happens if you give too much CBD to your pet?

Human CBD is usually formulated at a higher concentration than pet CBD. This creates a risk around the amount of CBD you are administering, meaning your pet could experience adverse effects, toxicity, or overdose.


Let’s get into what each of these mean.

Adverse Effects

An adverse effect is an undesirable reaction which, in this case, is a result of CBD administration. This will likely manifest as mild and quickly reversible upset to your pet such as drowsiness or lethargy, upset stomach, and in some cases, diarrhea.

It is simple to reduce the risk of such potential adverse effects by following recommended guidelines like administering the supplement during or after mealtimes. Adverse effects are seen in the general population at labeled quantities of a given product but considered acceptable, or low risk, relative to the potential benefits. 

Toxicity

Products that are not manufactured with your pet’s needs in mind may contain elements that are poisonous to your companion. Toxicity occurs when your pet is exposed to these poisons, potentially causing death or serious debilitation.

While many claim that cannabis cannot pose a toxic risk –and that does apply to the natural plant with small quantities of compounds– both CBD and THC can cause serious debilitation and death at extreme amounts. It is important to note that the amount it takes for this is highly variable and is based on individual response. 

With toxicity, the symptoms are more severe than adverse effects. Lethargy progresses to coma, respiratory depression progresses to levels that prohibit adequate oxygenation without support, extremely low blood pressure puts significant stress on most organ systems, potentially causing long term effects if the patient survives the insult, etc.

In the case of cannabis supplements (CBD, THC, hemp), toxicities tend to be managed with aggressive medical management, such as IV fluids, oxygen supplementation, protective drugs for whatever system is involved most, etc., and time. Most of the compounds’ effects wear off after 2-3 days.

Although this information may deter you from using CBD supplements from your pet – it shouldn’t. Being equipped with this knowledge gives you greater power to care for your pet in the best way possible. It also emphasizes the importance of selecting the right product for your four-legged friend.

Overdose

An overdose is a dose that is too large and results in adverse or lethal reactions. This is what happens when the quantity administered is greater than the recommended amount and can  have severe consequences.

 

Contrary to popular belief, CBD overdose can occur in pets, but the quantity required to get there is highly variable and is dependent upon several factors including:

  • Age
  • Species
  • Presence of other compounds
  • Hydration status
  • Cardiovascular, neurological and other individual sensitivities

Similar to toxicity, symptoms are more severe with overdose. Lethargy now prohibits your pet from assuming normal daily activities; GI upset causes protracted vomiting and extreme diarrhea. The body begins to have troubles with more critical areas: low blood pressure, poor reaction times, lowered respiration rate, elevated or lowered heart rate – and can cascade into long term effects if not corrected (e.g. respiratory collapse). 

To be clear, CBD overdose is rare. In fact, it is usually the result of humans leaving their high-potency CBD extracts out where a child or pet can ingest the whole thing. Another overdose potential is a well-meaning pet parent giving an unknown quantity (usually homemade, improper potency on the label, etc.) or extremely large quantity (such as by using a human CBD product) to a dog or cat.

 

Here’s the kicker: some overdoses require immediate medical attention while others require time. So, how can you tell the difference? It’s all in the symptoms:

If your pet…

  • Takes the appropriate labeled amounts, but shows more fatigue than normal
  • Experiences mild GI upset, such as soft-formed stool, slightly off feed, etc.
  • Or shows any of the above symptoms after taking 2x the labeled quantity

 

Speak with your veterinarian and call Canna Companion for a consultation. Always contact your attending veterinary doctor before us.

If your pet…

  • Ingested a quantity 3-4x the labeled quantity 
  • Wobbles while walking, but can stand unaided
  • Can drink water properly
  • Presents mild GI upset, such as lip licking, refusing food, mild diarrhea, etc.
  • Shows less interest in pets, treats, and regular activity

 

Monitor your pet throughout the day and call your veterinarian in the morning if the symptoms do not change.

If your pet…

  • Is unable to get up unaided or with minimal help
  • Is unable to eat or drink without assistance
  • Has ingested a known large quantity (even if no symptoms are present yet)
  • Exhibits delayed responses (difficulty or inability to wake from a nap or when wakes is too groggy to greet you)
  • Shows protracted GI upset (continued vomiting or retching, ongoing diarrhea, GI cramping)
  • Displays odd changes in behavior (depression to mania)
  • Or any other symptoms that cause severe concern

 

Call your veterinarian or local veterinary emergency hospital immediately. 

In addition to ‘overdose’, it is important to consider that there are other components in CBD products. For instance, CBD is fat-soluble, which means that infusing it with a good quality oil (also called a carrier oil) can increase its bioavailability. Therefore, in addition to pure CBD being potentially life-threatening in large quantities, both CBD & certain types of carrier oils (specifically MCT) can cause gastrointestinal upset.

Manufacturers of these products specifically take all these things into consideration and design products that give you more clarity in how much to give your pet. For instance, Canna Companion’s has weight-based recommendations that come with our products and we offer free consultations to guide you through the safety guidelines of administering CBD.

 

Make Sure Your CBD Is Up To Snuff

So no, there is not a huge difference between pet CBD and human CBD, but the concentrations vary in a way that just makes it safer to provide your pet with the best supplement you can offer them. 

When selecting the right CBD pet supplement for your four-legged friend, be sure to look for high-quality products that are custom formulated for companion animals. 

One way to do this is to only purchase from brands that provide you with a Certificate of Analysis (COA) for each batch of product. To make the search for the right product even easier, choose brands that are certified by the National Animal Supplement Council’s quality seal

At Canna Companion, we are committed to transparency and care for your pet, which is why we offer one-on-one consultation with our licensed veterinary professionals to give you the best custom care and recommendations. Book a free consultation or shop our products today.

Do Vets Recommend CBD?

In 2018, the Farm Bill was signed into law, making hemp legal in the United States. But, with this massive step forward came a whole lot of confusion for pet parents everywhere.

Ultimately, the Farm Bill legalized hemp, but it made the crop a highly regulated one, both for personal and industrial production, which means that laws around hemp-derived products, such as CBD, are not so straightforward.

And while this new bill allowed and protected research about hemp use in humans, the same did not go for veterinary cases. In other words, cannabis and CBD for pets are stuck in a grey area: legal yet unapproved for your favorite companion. 

So, the question remains. Do vets recommend CBD? Let’s get into it…

Why can’t vets recommend or prescribe CBD for pets?

As of July 2021, 36 states have legalized marijuana for medicinal or recreational use by people—or both. And yet, none of these laws account for use of cannabis in veterinary medicine.

The result is a world where the hemp industry is booming and stores are being lined with supplements for animals and humans alike, and yet most veterinarians cannot even speak about cannabis and CBD with their clients. 

States with more established cannabis industries, such as California and Nevada, are more lenient with their veterinary restrictions. In fact, a bill passed in May 2021 will take effect on October 1, 2021, making Nevada the first state in the U.S. where veterinarians may recommend and administer CBD, if the products contain no more than 0.3% THC, to patients without fear of disciplinary action. 

Until this legislation, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association:

“California [was] the only state to specifically address veterinarians’ ability to engage with clients, indicating that veterinarians can discuss the use of cannabis for medical purposes with clients without being disciplined by the veterinary medical board solely for having that conversation.”

With the existing law, Californian vets cannot prescribe, dispense, or administer any cannabis or cannabis-based products, including CBD. However, a newly proposed bill is fighting to change this as well. 

The only other states with explicit language that allow veterinarians to have a conversation with their clients about cannabis for pets are Michigan and New York. 

Other states like Washington are stuck with unclear laws. Their State Department of Health even admits “Due to confusion on federal and state levels, we’re unable to give guidance on the legality of providing advice to clients regarding cannabis use.” 

Then, states like Utah have no state veterinary board and lump all medical professionals into the same category, providing Utah vets with absolutely no clear guidance on what does and does not put their license at risk when it comes to hemp and cannabis.

Further still, many states, such as Georgia, follow the lead of the FDA, DEA and AVMA and don’t allow the recommendation of cannabis-derived products for veterinary use.

Want to do something about this?

Contact your federal, state, and local elected leaders to improve the current veterinary cannabis laws. Visit https://www.usa.gov/elected-officials to do your part today. 

Overall, vets are put in a difficult position with respect to guidance from their state boards and this means some cannot or will not mention cannabis to clients. That’s in part why we founded Canna Companion: to provide education where it’s prohibited or not yet available.

There are many complex considerations around giving hemp to your pet: how the specific product works, proper quantities, possible drug interactions, side effects, etc. As state boards are still only learning, businesses like ours are spending every waking moment providing this exact education to our clients. 

Other organizations like Veterinary Cannabis Society and Veterinary Cannabis.org are also trying to change this gap in education and help pet parents understand what to buy and how to administer it. 

So, as your resident veterinarian cannabis experts, we can help you determine whether CBD and cannabis supplements are appropriate for your pet. 

Do vets recommend CBD?

The truth is that CBD supplements may not be right for every pet. It is important to understand the way cannabis and hemp interact with other prescription medications and/or supplements that your pet is currently taking. 

Moreover, not all CBD-containing products are labeled accurately. They may claim to have certain levels or ratios of CBD to THC, but unless you are finding reputable, third-party lab-tested products with a NASC Seal, you may be unknowingly risking your pet’s life. 

One thing all veterinarians – proponents of cannabis or not – can agree on is that supplemental care should always be discussed with an attending veterinarian. 

While your primary care veterinarian may be restricted in what they can and cannot discuss with you about your pet’s health, we at Canna Companion are happy to cover it all. In addition to being able to ship our highest-quality products to states where veterinarians cannot even talk about hemp with their clients, our consultations can answer every question under the sun as it applies to your specific pet. 

Long story short: we are the veterinarians you never knew you needed. 

Our free consultations are meant to answer this exact question for your pet’s unique needs.Just as anti-inflammatory drugs are not appropriate for all humans, CBD and cannabis supplements may not be beneficial for every pet.

Our entire management and advisory team is made up of highly esteemed doctors of veterinary medicine, licensed veterinary technicians, and veterinary cannabis counselors. Whether it’s your dog or cat or your horse, bird, or alligator, we are equipped to give you custom recommendations that are appropriate for your pet.

Overall, our team of veterinary professionals and consultants are able to provide you with the full picture. Through our consultations and deep knowledge of the field, we will be able to help you navigate the murky waters and determine whether or not CBD is right for your pet. 

Book a free consultation today and learn more about whether or not CBD is recommended for your pet.

What can CBD do for cats?

As Charles Dickens once said, “What greater gift than the love of a cat.” Whether you’re a new cat parent or your feline friend has been around for a while, you know this is certainly true.

That’s why at Canna Companion, we are dedicated to your pet’s well-being, so you can give that love right back.

Unfortunately, some things are out of your hands. For instance, in our ECS Series, we explain how aging combined with normal daily activities can place stress on all aspects of your cat’s joints.

As a cat caretaker, it is crucial to understand what is going on in your older cat’s body to help support them in maintaining a healthy range of motion throughout life.

Similar to humans, animals experience normal changes in their bodies as they age. These changes can create stress and discomfort resulting in alterations to their normal bodily processes.

Picking up on feline discomfort and the reasons behind it is the first step to being able to effectively care for your pet.

What CBD can do for your cat

While aging is a normal part of life, discomfort and anxiety associated with that process should not be. CBD and cannabis for cats can provide a range of benefits so your four-legged friend can be on the prowl without a worry.

CBD for cat anxiety

Much like us, cats can also experience symptoms of stress and anxiety that result in a sudden change in mood, behavior, and overall well-being. Short-term stressors like changes in the environment and conflicts with other pets can result in other issues such as poor grooming habits or reduced activity.

Cannabinoids like the ones in CBD pet supplements can help by supporting receptors within your cat’s endocannabinoid system and assist in the regulation of mood, sleep patterns, and other normal processes.

CBD for cat mobility

Just as in humans, there are a lot of changes in felines that come with aging.

While cannabidiol can’t do anything to turn back time, many pet owners have found that cat CBD supplements can help your feline friend move around better and go back to the days of chasing lasers and balls with a little more comfort and/or energy.

If you have an aging pet that needs additional support, CBD oils are a great place to start. Learn more about how you can introduce supplements for your pets into their routine the right way.

Is CBD safe for cats?

Even with humans, medical cannabis consumption must be done carefully to ensure that you are using the right product and the right amount. At the end of the day, there are tons of CBD products out there that claim to work. However, if a supplement is formulated without true quality assurance, it may end up being toxic to your cat. 

As with anything that has to do with your cat’s health, we encourage you to do your due diligence. 

Here are some things to look out for when purchasing cannabis or CBD for cats:

  • Ensure that the product has been tested for both contaminants and quality through a third-party lab. This means there should be lab reports for each product batch.
  • Read up on businesses that have the NASC Seal of Quality (like us!) to learn about reputable brands that are certified as committed to creating quality animal products.
  • Make sure the brand you choose can answer every little question you have. This is why Canna Companion offers free consultations for our customers who want to get personalized help for their cats without worrying about all the conflicting opinions on the internet. 

CBD dosing: Start low and go slow

Once you find a brand you can trust, you need to assess what quantity your cat needs to be relieved of its stressors. This can take some trial and error, so it’s best to start low and go slow. For more guidance on how to arrive at the proper amount for your cat, check out this article on how to use CBD for your cat

Wondering if CBD is right for your cat? Talk to one of our licensed veterinarians

If you are unsure about which amount of CBD or product to select, it is always a good idea to consult with a veterinarian that understands your cat’s needs. Canna Companion offers free consultations with our licensed veterinarians so you can get the answers to all your burning CBD questions.

How Long Do the Effects of CBD Oil Last in Dogs?

 

Did you know that human-dog relationships are shown to potentially help with mood stabilization, particularly under stress-prone conditions? In fact, studies have shown that human–animal interactions may even improve peer-to-peer social relationships, as well as increase feelings of respect, trust, and empathy between people. 

 

It is no surprise, then, that dog guardianship has skyrocketed since the onset of a global pandemic. According to Sara Kent, CEO of the nonprofit database Shelter Animals Count, reported that by the end of 2020, spending on pet care and supplies had reached a record $99 billion.

 

The intersection of CBD and pet products.

Combined with the fact that we can see similar growth trends in the cannabis industry, the possibilities seem endless for the intersection of the two markets. In fact, a 2020 Nielsen report revealed that 74% of CBD buyers have pets. Further, they predicted that hemp-based CBD pet products will represent 3-5% of all hemp CBD sales within the U.S. by 2025.

 

The truth is, better, more affordable pet care is made possible by the increasing availability of these products such as CBD oil for dogs and American pup parents are ready to try it out – pandemic or not.

 

Aiding your dog’s overall health through wellness products offers greater support and quality of life. Similar to how humans benefit from nutrition, exercise, vitamins, and other supplements, your dog can benefit from these measures as well. 

 

Pet products like CBD oil for dogs may help to encourage a normal digestive process, maintain neurological balance, and support healthy joint function so your pup can play fetch all day long.

 

However, while the benefits and growth of CBD supplements and oils are becoming more widely accepted, it is important to have a full understanding of how these products work in your dog. 

 

This guide will walk you through how to use CBD for dogs, from the science behind how it works and how much to give your pet to how long the effects last. Check it out! 

How does CBD affect your dog’s body? 

The way that CBD and cannabis provide benefits to both animals and humans has to do with one complex system in the body: the Endocannabinoid System (ECS).

 

Dogs and the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

The ECS is found in all mammals and helps regulate a number of functions and processes in the body such as digestion, mobility, mood, neurological and immune system responses, and sleep cycles. 

 

There are three main components to the endocannabinoid system: endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes. Long story short: the endocannabinoids bind to receptors in order to signal that the entire system needs to take action. 

 

This is important because the ECS communicates with cannabinoid receptors using the endocannabinoids that it produces naturally. However, the buzz around CBD has to do with the fact that the ECS can also stimulate communication through external compounds, such as plant cannabinoids, known as phytocannabinoids. Cannabidiol, or CBD, is one such phytocannabinoid found in the hemp plant.

 

A deeper dive into the endocannabinoid system will show you that different cannabinoid receptors are associated with different systems in the body. 

 

So what does this mean for your dog? Ultimately, CBD can provide your pup’s endocannabinoid system with additional compounds to use and carry out functions that help address different normal processes. 

 

For this reason, CBD is a great supplement to give your dog for:

 

  • Supporting normal GI tract health 
  • Encouraging key digestive processes 
  • Providing peak immune system condition 
  • Helping with temporary joint discomfort and general joint health 
  • Maintaining healthy neurological function 
  • Supporting your dog’s mental health and performance 
  • Promotes a calm and relaxed demeanor 
  • Helping overcome temporary or situational anxieties
  • And more

 

These benefits can be delivered in a number of forms, which is why you often see so many different types of cannabis and CBD products for pets. At Canna Companion, our data-driven products are formulated to maintain your dog’s optimal health through CBD capsules and hemp oil.

The lasting effects of CBD oil in dogs? 

As you may know, your dog has a unique personality with quirks, likes and dislikes, preferences for foods, toys, and people, and more. In the same way, every dog and every breed is different – and all these factors may affect the length of time that CBD remains effective in your four-legged friend’s body. 

 

Here are some factors that will determine how long CBD lasts in your dog:

 

  • Weight   
  • Diet
  • Activity level
  • Metabolism
  • Duration of exposure to CBD 

 

Typically, it takes around 30 minutes for your pup to feel the full effects of an appropriate CBD oil quantity. After that, the effects last anywhere from four to twelve hours – again, depending on the above factors.

 

These varying factors are why determining the appropriate frequency and quantity of CBD for your dog will depend on the brand and product you select.

 

For instance, Canna Companion’s experienced team of scientists and veterinarians have carefully developed NASC Seal-stamped products that already take into account all of these factors. Using bracketing methodology, we analyzed a distinct pattern of data which we used to design our product administration recommendations for both our capsule line and CBD oil products.

 

With these labeled recommendations, finding the right amount of CBD for your dog becomes a lot less complicated and you can better observe the effectiveness of the products you use. 

 

| Related: How to Introduce CBD to Your Pets

 

Keep in mind that if you begin to notice the effects of CBD oil wearing off faster, it is a good idea to contact us or your veterinarian as simply slowly increasing the amount in your pet to maintain the same positive results may not be appropriate.

 

Furthermore, your method of delivery (i.e. a capsule versus an oil) will likely result in a change in how long the effects last.

Wondering if CBD is right for your dog? Talk to one of our licensed veterinarians.

As pup parents begin to increasingly adopt the usage of CBD oils for dogs, it becomes more important to learn about the proper amount, frequency, and effectiveness so you can provide your furry friends with the best possible care and keep their tail wagging all day long.

 

Although there are many factors that affect how long the effects of CBD oil last in dogs, a range of four to twelve hours is typical based on the size and weight of your pet. Seeking out trustworthy brands and products is key to your pup’s overall wellbeing. 

 

As always, it is important to always speak to a veterinarian prior to starting any new supplementation routine, including CBD oil, to make sure it’s a good fit for your dog’s routine. Canna Companion offers free consultations with our licensed veterinarians so you can discover if CBD oils are the right choice for your dog. 

How to Use CBD for Cats

You have surely heard of the many benefits of cannabidiol, or CBD, for humans. With all its potential benefits, cannabis and CBD are all the rage these days.

Scientists and researchers have discovered that CBD may actually have similar positive effects on your favorite feline friend. As a growing number of Americans begin to accept and experiment with hemp and its benefits, you might also consider using CBD supplements or hemp oil for your cat to improve their health and happiness.

This guide will answer all your questions and relieve all your worries about using CBD for cats. Check it out!

Is CBD really good for my cat?

Like in humans, CBD for pets has yet to be widely accepted as common practice and unfortunately, there isn’t as much data available when it comes to cannabinoids and cats as there is for humans or dogs.

However, as veterinary experts delve deeper into this phenomenon, more and more research becomes available to support that CBD has a range of benefits for your four-legged friends.

Cats respond specifically well to CBD and hemp supplements under short-term anxiety situations, such as separation anxiety and noise phobias. They have also been known to experience improved mobility, similar to dogs. In fact, products containing CBD may help to relieve aches associated with high activity, support a normal digestive process, and promote a calm mood.

Other benefits of CBD for cats include:

  • Physical and mental well-being
  • A sense of relaxation
  • Supported immune system function
  • Encourages normal mobility and joint function

In other words, CBD is feline friendly and offers a whole range of benefits to keep them happy. If you’re hoping to support your feline’s quality of life, it’s worth looking into CBD.

 

How does CBD work for pets?

CBD delivers this range of benefits in both animals and us through the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). This complex system is found within the bodies of all mammals and works as one of the body’s largest neurotransmitter networks.

The ECS is made up of three main components: endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes. Explained simply, the endocannabinoids bind to receptors in order to signal that the entire system needs to take action.

From situational overgrooming to reactivity, the ECS regulates a number of functions and processes in the body. In fact, the endocannabinoid system helps with normal processes like digestion, mobility, mood, neurological, and immune system responses.

Cannabis plants, like hemp, produce CBD within the plant that can connect to the ECS receptors to help promote the normal regulation of these functions. In other words, CBD provides the endocannabinoid system with additional compounds it uses to carry out functions that help calm the body, maintain normal digestion, improve mobility, and more.

CBD capsules and hemp oil for cats can help support and maintain their overall quality of life simply and easily. That’s why we have made it our mission to create high-quality cannabis supplements to help maintain your pet’s optimal health.

 

How much CBD do I give my cat?

CBD is known to have the quickest and strongest effect when administered in the presence of other compounds (called the entourage effect) and before or after eating meals. That is why Canna Companion’s CBD supplements for cats include a balanced combination of CBD to THC – to optimize the entourage effect.

Ultimately, the ‘proper’ amount of CBD for your cats will depend on the brand and product you use. For instance, Canna Companion has developed our products based on weight. Our veterinarians used their expertise to determine what quantity is needed to support the ECS in cats. In other words, our labeled recommendations for administering supplements are the best place to start to understand how your four-legged friend will respond to pet CBD.

Additionally, product form is important. For example, feline CBD oil is not a product that produces immediate results. Instead, these supplements encourage your cat’s body to respond in a helpful way within a week or two.

If you have any questions or concerns about CBD dosage for your cat, Canna Companion offers free consultations with our licensed veterinarians.

How to Introduce CBD to Your Pets

According to the 2019-2020 National Pet Owners Survey conducted by the American Pet Products Association (APPA), 67% of U.S. households, or about 85 million families, own a pet. From cats and dogs to birds and horses, we know that your pet is part of your family – and you would do anything to keep them healthy and happy. 

As more and more families consider plant-based remedies for their pet worries, CBD has come to the forefront of the race. While CBD product research is limited on the veterinarian front compared to available human studies, many have used CBD products for pets to support a healthier lifestyle.

The question that remains is: 

How do I safely introduce CBD to my pets?

Pets can be more sensitive to cannabis compared to humans. Knowing precisely how much CBD you are giving your pet is important when determining their supplement schedule so you can avoid overdosing your four-legged friend. 

The amount of CBD you give your pet should be based on the species (i.e. cat vs dog) and size of your pet. Dogs metabolize plant-based compounds faster than cats, and generally need administration twice a day for capsules and three times daily-administration for oils. Cats typically take CBD capsules once daily and oils two times a day. Do also keep in mind that sometimes, sensitive pets are able to take less while realizing the same benefits as others. 

Will CBD get my pet high?

Cannabidiol found in cannabis pet supplements is typically sourced from hemp, which is a variation of the cannabis plant. Hemp naturally contains extremely low concentrations of THC, which is the main psychoactive compound found in cannabis products that produce a ‘high’. 

In other words, no. CBD supplements are non-psychoactive and therefore may be used on pets.

How much CBD do I give my pet?

Recommended CBD administration guidelines tend to vary slightly as you switch products, as pet CBD products are manufactured differently from brand to brand. This is because CBD is known to have the quickest and strongest effect when administered in the presence of other compounds (called the entourage effect). Therefore CBD-only products versus products that balance CBD:THC also have different administration recommendations. It will also depend heavily on your pet’s weight and the way their body functions. 

For instance, Canna Companion has accommodated special requests for a number of animals beyond the typical household pets, such as birds, skunks, alligators, etc. The recommended amounts for these animals need to be modified and monitored to promote better overall health. 

That is why Canna Companion’s licensed veterinarians custom-developed our products via bracketing methodology. We analyzed thousands of patients to observe a distinct pattern corresponding largely to weight. Using this data, we designed our product administration recommendations for both our capsule line and hemp oil products. This means that using our guidelines, you will gain a solid understanding of where to begin CBD administration for your pet. 

CBD products for your pets’ specific needs

Canna Companion intentionally created a living database of exploration in this area to confirm our veterinarian expertise. Therefore, our products are created with your pets’ specific needs in mind, which is why many veterinarians and pet parents around the country use our products. 

If you have any questions or concerns about CBD administration for your pet, Canna Companion offers free consultations with our licensed veterinarians.

Hemp Oil for Dogs: 8 Things You Should Know Before Buying

Girl walking her dog in a fieldIf you’re a dog owner, you’ve probably heard about hemp oil. Maybe you’ve even looked into purchasing some to improve your pup’s quality of life. But given the massive number of conflicting articles and claims made on the internet, where on earth can you start looking for reliable, science-based information? Is hemp oil even good for dogs? 

We’ve got the answers. Canna Companion is a leader in cannabis science and education. Our team is made up of veterinary experts who are dedicated to dispelling false information and sharing the potential benefits of this natural resource. So today, let’s talk about hemp oil for dogs: is it safe, and what should you know before you buy?

1. High-Quality Hemp Oil Is Safe for Dogs

Canna Companion whole plant hemp oilThe first thing you should consider before making any changes to your pet’s diet or daily routine is safety. So, is hemp oil safe for dogs? The answer is yes—so long as you choose a product specifically formulated for pets.

Marijuana products made for medical or recreational use are not appropriate for pets. They may contain unregulated or unspecified ratios of CBD to THC, which can cause distress and other adverse reactions in your dog. An overdose of these products can leave your pet dizzy and unable to walk or eat until the effects fade. 

Hemp-based products made just for pets, on the other hand, contain specific ratios of chemical compounds, which enables animals to enjoy the benefits of hemp while minimizing the dangers of marijuana products.

Here are just some of the benefits of hemp oil for dogs:

2. It Won’t Get Your Dog High

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychotropic compound that produces a feeling of euphoria or “highness.” This compound is present in marijuana products. CBD, or cannabidiol, is non-psychotropic, meaning that it conveys the benefits of the cannabis plant without the adverse effects associated with marijuana. 

As we mentioned, hemp oil for dogs is produced with carefully-controlled ratios of CBD to THC. The amount of THC in these products is extremely minimal, meaning that properly formulated hemp oil will not get your dog high. Canna Companion’s Whole Plant Hemp Oil, for example, contains an amount of THC well below the threshold where a dog might experience a euphoric effect.

3. Not All Hemp Oil for Dogs Is Created Equal

That being said, not all hemp oil for dogs is the same. Some CBD products are considered “single compound,” meaning that they’re formulated with a cannabinoid and terpenoid profile mostly made up of one major compound. This type of product prevents animals from enjoying the full benefits of CBD and can even throw off the entire endocannabinoid system when administered over a lengthy period.

Instead of single compound CBD products, you should look for “whole plant” or “full spectrum” formulations, such as Canna Companion’s Whole Plant Hemp Oil. Full spectrum products utilize the full range of cannabinoids and terpenoids, resulting in more effective support to the endocannabinoid system. These products should have a Certificate of Analysis available for you to ensure that the hemp oil for dogs you’ve chosen is in compliance with current hemp definitions and regulations.

4. It Can Help With Anxiety

Hearing your dog cry when you leave the house is heartbreaking for you but can actually be damaging for them. It’s perfectly normal for your dog to experience a certain level of anxiety—humans do too, and it’s a natural part of life. But when that anxiety becomes overblown, and the symptoms begin affecting your dog’s quality of life, it’s important to address the situation. That might mean minimizing the situational stressor that’s causing the behavior; fireworks, thunderstorms, car rides, and changes to a daily routine are all common causes of situational anxiety.

If you’ve already done your best to minimize your dog’s exposure to these stressors, hemp oil can provide further comfort. The substance can calm the mind and soothe the body, allowing your dog to be more relaxed and comfortable in the face of a big move or an exciting training session.

5. It’s Great for Senior Dogs

Getting old isn’t easy for anyone, but it can be particularly difficult to watch a beloved pet go grey in the muzzle or stop wanting to go for long walks. Fortunately, hemp oil for dogs can ease the transition into old age and beyond. 

Senior canines often experience issues like a weakened immune system, separation anxiety, and stiffness from normal daily activities. You may want to consider introducing a high-quality hemp oil made specifically for dogs to help encourage a calm demeanor, ease the discomfort that comes from regular exercise, and support a functioning immune system. 

6. Hemp Oil Dosage Depends on the Size of Your Dog

What’s the correct dosage of hemp oil for dogs? There’s no exact answer, but it typically depends on the size and breed of your dog, as well as their unique needs and how their endocannabinoid system responds. Dogs can normally enjoy the benefits of CBD oil by ingesting .1mLs of our Whole Plant Hemp Oil for every 10 lbs., two to three times a day. We also recommend administering hemp oil for dogs during or just after feeding time in order to minimize the risk of GI upset.

Again, the exact hemp oil for dogs dosage should be determined by your canine’s needs. If you’re having trouble figuring out the right amount for your dog and believe he may need more or less than the recommended amount, consider reaching out to a veterinarian for additional insight. 

7. Oil Formulations May Be Easier to Administer Than CBD Capsules

You may be wondering what the difference is between hemp oil for dogs and CBD capsules. To begin, these options will have unique CBD to THC ratios and terpenoid profiles. Oil formulations have 3.5:1-5.5:1 CBD to THC ratios. In contrast, Canna Companion’s regular strength CBD capsules are formulated with a ratio of 3:1-4:1, and our extra strength capsules are 5:1-6:1. The correct choice will depend on the unique needs of your canine.

In addition to ratios of CBD to THC, ease of use should also factor into your decision. If your dog has trouble swallowing pills or manages to find and spit out every capsule you try to sneak into his food, hemp oil may be easier to administer. It’s also a better choice for canines who need more immediate support for their endocannabinoid system.

8. We’re Still Uncovering the Full Benefits of Hemp Oil for Dogs

Researchers have spent decades studying the effects of CBD on the body—and we still have yet to uncover the full potential of this resource. In fact, the cannabis plant contains an enormous variety of chemical compounds, and we’ve only discovered 545 so far!

Cannabis science is an immensely promising field, and we’re looking forward to further expanding our knowledge of the cannabis plant and its compounds in the years to come. In the meantime, your canine companion can benefit from a whole host of known effects, including support for her immune system, joints, demeanor, GI tract, and neurological system.

Your Pup Deserves the Best: Choose High-Quality Hemp Oil for Dogs

As you can see, hemp oil for dogs offers a wide range of supportive health benefits; but it’s crucial to choose a product you can trust. After all, your dog depends on you to care for them and keep them healthy, happy, and comfortable. Canna Companion’s Whole Plant Hemp Oil for dogs is formulated with a carefully-controlled ratio of CBD to THC, ensuring that it’s not only beneficial but also safe for your dog to consume. 

Have more questions about hemp oil for dogs? We would love to hear from you. We’d also be happy to set up a complimentary consultation with a licensed veterinary professional who can advise you on your dog’s unique needs. Don’t hesitate to contact us today.

What Does CBD Do for Dogs?

Here at Canna Companion, we understand full well how important your canine is to your family. Your dog is a constant source of entertainment, joy, comfort and unconditional love, which is why it’s imperative to protect his or her mental and physical well-being through supplementation. Unfortunately, it can be incredibly challenging to determine the best ways to do so, especially considering the fact that there are thousands of dog health supplements on the market. How are you supposed to research and understand the effects of these products, let alone decide on the ones which will suit the needs of your lovable four-legged family member? In this blog, we’ll be helping you to sift through your list of options by discussing the uses and benefits of pet supplements that utilize CBD (cannabidiol).

Understanding the Benefits of CBD for Dogs

CBD is one of the many active cannabinoids found in cannabis. This extraordinary chemical compound is found throughout the cannabis plant in its natural state, cannabidiolic acid (CBD-A.) All types of CBD are phytocannabinoids, one of 111 compounds unique to the cannabis plant. Moreover, biologically active compounds like CBD have been proven to demonstrate a number of physiologic and pharmacologic effects on multiple mammalian tissues by supporting the endocannabinoid system (ECS), resulting in a variety of invaluable health and behavioral benefits. Put simply, with the help of high-quality cannabis products for pets, your pet’s endocannabinoid system gains unrivaled support for their GI tract, immune system, mobility, joint health, neurological systems and more, maintaining their overall quality of life.

When paired with other active cannabinoids, CBD can also produce the “entourage effect.” The entourage effect results when the cannabis plant’s major phytocannabinoids and other components are permitted to synergize with each other, creating an increase in health benefits and a decrease in adverse effect.  Cannabinoids combine with terpenes and flavonoids to produce complex molecules which the ECC (your pet’s natural cannabis receptor system) then utilizes to activate receptors throughout the body. The liver plays an important role as well in that each pass these compounds make, a slightly different molecule is made which supports the ECS in its own unique way.  These larger molecules allow for smaller amounts of the individual compounds which lessens adverse reaction risks, while still allowing your pet to reap the health benefits of the cannabis plant.

Are CBD Products Safe for Dogs?

Regrettably, not all cannabis products are designed with the well-being of our animal companions in mind. In fact, because marijuana products contain high concentrations of the psychotropic compound known as THC, they can lead to several negative effects for pets, including low blood pressures, anxiety, aggression, incontinence, an inability to walk, extreme lethargy, excessive pacing and more. Considering how distressing these adverse conditions are, it’s no surprise some pet parents are hesitant to invest in cannabis products due to concerns for their companion’s safety. However, it’s important to remember that animal-friendly cannabis supplements use hemp as the base ingredient, a variant of Cannabis sativa which is more appropriate for pets because of its low levels of THC. Consequently, hemp products have all of the benefits of CBD and other cannabinoids without subjecting your pet to large quantities of THC, effectively preventing them from feeling high or stoned.

Bear in mind overdoses can still occur when using hemp-based pet supplements,and can cause your pet to become extremely sedate, develop diarrhea, and other short-term symptoms. Cannabis dosages are largely unregulated, meaning that even if you purchase hemp supplements for your dog, they may contain ratios of CBD:THC which are not ideal for your canine’s system. To exacerbate matters, many companies  in the industry do not provide Certificate of Analyses, 3rd party test results which prove a company’s claims.  This can make it difficult to determine how much of the beneficial substance you are giving to your pet. Because most pets are significantly smaller in size than humans, it’s important to know exactly how much you’re giving them in each serving to avoid instances of overdose. That’s why we highly recommend choosing a hemp supplement provider with clear and regulated administration guidelines. After all, the safety of your dog is too important to leave to chance.

Canna Companion’s Industry-Leading Administration Guidelines

Canna Companion works with a team of licensed veterinarians to guarantee each and every supplement we produce meets our strict quality standards. Thanks to our tireless commitment to safety, transparency and clarity for customers, veterinarians and pet parents around the country use Canna Companion to take the guesswork and risk out of administering hemp to canines. Our hemp supplements are carefully measured and crafted, ensuring a standardized amount per capsule every time. Moreover, our user-friendly dosage recommendations take the unique weight, size and conditions of your pet into consideration to guarantee your dog receives the perfect levels of CBD, THC, terpenes and other compounds naturally found in hemp seed and mature stalks to achieve optimal health.

Choosing the Best CBD Supplement for Your Dog

Now that you have a basic understanding of how CBD and hemp supplements can benefit your canine, all you need to do is decide on which cannabis products will provide the most value for your dog. We recommend consulting with your veterinarian before starting your canine on any new form of medication or supplementation. These experts in the field of animal health can give you detailed information on your dog’s specific needs and help you determine which products will work best for them. Remember, your veterinarian should be your first source of advice and counsel when it comes to the health and wellness of your pet. Together, you’ll find a high-quality product that offers your pet all of the support he or she needs to stay happy and healthy for many years to come.

Canna Companion Benefits

Canna Companion is a unique blend of hemp that is specially designed to enhance the health benefits of cannabis while negating the adverse effects of all compounds, including CBD. As we mentioned earlier, each capsule contains multiple cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids, which boost the benefits of CBD and other natural compounds within the plant while reducing the adverse effects of THC. Our supplements can be used to help support and maintain your canine’s overall quality of life, all while adhering to the ever-changing legal landscape. Here are some of the specific benefits that Canna Companion may provide your pet:

GI Tract Support

Canna Companion can be used to support normal GI tract health and function by supporting key digestive processes.

Immunity

Your dog’s immune system is his or her first line of defense and our hemp supplements help to support the immune system, a great boon for owners who want to keep their dogs in peak condition at all times.

Mobility and Joint Support

Normal daily exercise and activities can cause discomfort in dogs, especially once their joints begin to degrade as part of the normal aging process. Canna Companion supplements mitigate this by helping with joint discomfort and supporting general joint health in dogs of all ages.

Neurology

Canna Companion can be used to maintain healthy neurological function, supporting your dog’s mental health and performance.

Comfort and Care

Canna Companion can be used to assist in “end of life” comfort and care.

Demeanor

Canna Companion encourages a calm and relaxed demeanor in dogs, helping them to overcome temporary and/or situational anxieties.

Contact Canna Companion Today

Be sure to call or message Canna Companion if you’re interested in purchasing Canna Companion for your dog. You can also reach out to us if you want to learn more about our high-quality hemp supplements and how they can be used to maintain the well-being of your dog. We pride ourselves in offering exceptional customer support and are more than happy to provide you with any additional information or resources you need to care for your companion.

ECS Series: Neurological System

When CBD first became the buzz word, many had never heard of an endocannabinoid system (ECS), let alone how important it is for the normal development of the nervous system. And while the medical community has learned volumes regarding exactly how the ECS interacts with and modulates neurological tissues, passing that complex information to pet parents … well, it’s left folks scratching their heads. Today we’re going to simplify things so you have an understanding of just how important a healthy endocannabinoid system is to the well-being of your pet’s nervous system. 

Let’s start with what makes up a nervous system in cats and dogs. Hint: it’s the same cells, tissues, and organs which make up the nervous system in humans … just like the ECS. The nervous system is made up of two main parts based on location: central and peripheral. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system (PNS) encompasses all other parts of the body. 

Image from FourLeg.com

 

Central Nervous System

The brain has three main sections, each with its own special functions but not isolated from others. Cerebral tissues govern conscious decisions; the brainstem hosts nerve centers which oversee most of the critical life functions; and cerebellar input controls movement and balance. 

Within the cerebrum, nerve cells (neurons) transmit information via action potentials – electrical impulses which must meet a certain milli voltage threshold before messages jump to the next cell. Signalling for action potentials, whether initiation or cessation, is performed by neurotransmitters like endocannabinoids. If too low, no information is passed at all or is rerouted to nearby neurons which are capable of continuing the action potential. This happens all the time as part normal neurological functions. It can also occur after traumatic injuries, stroke, and other serious neurological imbalances. Sometimes those same imbalances can cause an action potential to be too high or continue too long, contributing to imbalances like seizures, insomnia and anxiety (runaway thoughts especially). 

The brainstem controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Bodily functions like breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure, and whether one is awake or sleepy. No, cats do not have a more developed brainstem which tells them to sleep 24/7; that’s their prey drive telling them to save as much energy as possible. When hunting, cats usually miss their targeted meal 7/10 times … that’s a lot of energy use and sleeping helps their body remain ever ready for an opportunistic chance to pounce. When balanced, the brainstem functions normally in the background, a part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Thankfully, imbalances are not common as they are often life-threatening. 

Cerebellar functions are markedly pronounced in cats when compared to dogs and humans. This is why they often land easily on their feet after catching birds, an adaptation that increases their chance of survival both from a meal perspective and in escaping injuries. It’s not foolproof and gravity affects us all when 10 stories high, so consider screening in balconies for safe outside time. When balanced, the cerebellum allows dogs and cats to navigate the world with more agility and us mere humans. When unbalanced, conditions like cerebellar hypoplasia occur, a congenital malformation in kittens whose mothers contracted certain viruses while pregnant. Despite the condition being permanent, CH cats often have very healthy long lives … and are adorable in their awkward playing

Frederico happily posing for the camera.

 

Spinal cord functions can best be described as a multilevel highway whereby certain information is transmitted in different anatomical locations. Like the brain, the spinal cord contains both white & gray matter, though the white matter of spinal cords is peripheral, whereas the brain’s white matter is centrally located. This makes sense when we consider white matter contains relatively few cell bodies and is composed mostly of long-range myelinated axons, a type of neuron which can speed electrical information across relatively long distances. 

In the spinal cord, peripheral white matter neurons are responsible for proprioception, the ability for dogs and cats to place their feet without conscious thought. Try this: with your dog standing quietly on solid ground, gently lift a front paw and place it furred sided down. Your dog will immediately turn it over so that his pads are ground-facing. A little deeper into the spinal cord’s white matter we find motor skill neuronal transmission. Simply put, information on this level allows your cat to make those amazing leaps straight up to catch birds, bugs and feather toys. The next level allows the body to recognize and respond to mild sensory stimuli, allowing dogs and cats to avoid thorny ground and similar pinprick like sensations.The deepest layer of spinal cord white matter transmits deep pain, that which really hurts, like traumatic injuries or severe soft tissue damage. Centrally located, spinal cord gray matter is the workhorse, transmitting all kinds of data between the body and brain.

From Today’s Veterinary Practice

Peripheral Nervous System

Neurons found within the PNS transmit both sensory and motor input, much like neurons do in the CNS. In this case, motor information directs muscle movement in tissues like the heart, intestines and skeletal muscles. Sensory input helps determine things like when to stop eating (stretch receptors in the stomach), when to use the litter box (stretch receptors within the bladder), and when to roll over during solar charging (temperature sensors within the skin). While it’s the CNS which tells the body to perform these tasks, it is the PNS which informs the brain of the stimuli, and the spinal cord which carries the information. The PNS is highly flexible and imbalance in any one area can often be compensated for elsewhere. For example, if your dog sustained an injury which severed a peripheral nerve in his paw, he may have areas of insensitivity … but nearby sensory and motor nerves are likely to take over allowing for a normal gait. 

 

Endocannabinoid-Neurological System

No, there’s not actually a system named that but the integration is so deep that it might as well be called such. Endocannabinoids and their plant-based counterparts (phytocannabinoids) like CBD, function as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and immunomodulators. In addition, the entire ECS integrates with a variety of other receptor systems, modulating their functions in order to maintain healthful homeostasis. Other neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, glutamate & gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are directly or indirectly modulated by the ECS. While this process is complex, the effects can be simplistic and drastic. 

 

Via influx of compounds like CBD & THC, cannabis receptors are able to calm action potentials attributed to imbalances within any tissue containing neurons. In other words, all tissues within the body are modulated by the ECS. This means a healthy, well-supported ECS is able to quickly cause peripheral vasodilation, bronchodilation and release of compounds which are soothing, all during times of anxiety. In addition, balanced cannabis receptors are vital in helping the brain’s action potentials remain healthy, working with the body when action potentials become too great. In order to help them remain balanced, supplementation with ratioed hemp supplementation is important as CBD only products only address a part of the complex system. 

I know we’ve covered a lot today, but I hope you are left with a better understanding of the nervous system and how the ECS supports its normal functions. Furthermore, providing the ECS with balanced compounds it can use wherever chemical messengers signal, can help your pet remain in top shape for years to come. We’ll see you next time when we discuss the ECS and behavioral responses.